The trajectory of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt - TAHA KILINÇ

The trajectory of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Ismailia, Egypt in March 1928, and four years after its establishment, its headquarters moved to the capital, Cairo. The goal of Hassan al-Banna, the founding leader of the group, was not only to grow this movement faster, but also to establish contact with Administration and royal rule, but he was not able to reach Abdeen Palace until the king's death in 1936, during which time the Brotherhood and their leader were under British intelligence surveillance.

Hasan al-Banna was interested in studying advocacy and guidance in Cairo, in addition to his interest in publishing books and magazines. During this period, the first monthly magazine for the Brotherhood (Nazir) was issued.

In one of Nazir's issues in 1938, Hassan Al-Banna addressed King Farouk, who was crowned king of Egypt only two years ago, following his father, King Fouad. This speech occupied the entire first page, and it was striking at that time that King Farouk was considered the protector of the Qur’an, which God chose for this general guidance.

Hasan al-Banna remained for a long time looking for an opportunity to meet King Farouk, using this new newspaper, which was regularly issued by the Brotherhood under the name "The Brotherhood Newspaper". Farouk's religious steps and his closeness to his people and his family to their hearts and that he is the fittest for power and presidency, but King Farouk indulged in amusement and tampering carelessly, which led to turning the Egyptian state into a game in the hands of powerful pashas and bureaucrats.

After the assassination of Hassan al-Banna in Cairo on February 12, 1949, Hassan al-Hudaybi assumed the presidency of the Brotherhood after two years of its dispersal, took it in a completely different direction, and supported the Free Officers Council that overthrew King Farouk.

The Brotherhood played a major role in the success of the July 23, 1952 coup, as their influence extended to all classes of Egyptian society. Abdel Nasser in Alexandria in 1954, the honeymoon period between the government and the Brotherhood. Abdel Nasser declared war on the Brotherhood, purging the entire bureaucracy and politics from the Brotherhood.

In 1970, Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat assumed the presidency, opening the doors of life to the Brotherhood again, to support Islamism against the threat of communism. They soon disagreed with Sadat for not accepting the peace agreement signed between Egypt and Israel in 1979. Despite this, Omar al-Telmisani, who served as the Brotherhood's General Guide (President) from 1973 to 1986, made the following statement when Anwar Sadat was killed on October 6: October 1981: "Sadat was just like Hertz. He was killed unjustly like Othman"

Hosni Mubarak’s rule is a new era for the Brotherhood, as the Egyptian government turned a blind eye to them, and although the Brotherhood was officially banned from engaging in politics, they participated in the political process, as many Brotherhood members were elected representatives from different party lists, and they participated in bureaucracy, and in the activities of civil society. What Muhammad Mahdi Akef, the Brotherhood's general guide from 2004 to 2010, said, "Hosni Mubarak must be obeyed because he is the guardian of Muslims," this saying sums up the relationship between the Brotherhood and the government.

In short, if we look closely at the 100-year history of the Brotherhood in Egypt, we notice that it follows one approach that does not deviate from it, which is to be in constant contact with the authority and those who control it.

We see them cling tightly to everything that binds them to the state and always try to maintain a strong relationship with it.

Looking at this aspect, there is a question: Will Egypt give new opportunities to the Brotherhood? We cannot be certain that this will not happen. Surprising developments may occur in the coming period regarding the reintroduction of the Brotherhood into the game. With this in mind, the rumors that “Saudi Arabia is seeking to establish a new Brotherhood group in line with its policy by eliminating the extremist elements within it” must be taken seriously. As for the issue of the success and survival of this project, this is a topic for another day.

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